Friction Coefficient Tables in Air and Vacuum

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Revision for “Friction Coefficient Tables in Air and Vacuum” created on April 19, 2022 @ 17:46:04

Title
Friction Coefficient Tables in Air and Vacuum
Content
<h2>Friction coefficient tables for solid lubricants, metals, plastics and anti-friction materials</h2> Friction coefficient tables for various material pairs in atmosphere and vacuum (see the definition of <a href="http://www.tribonet.org/wiki/coefficient-of-friction/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">friction coefficient</a>) are provided below. The data was collected from various sources [1,2,3]. <table width="541"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="text-align: center;" width="207">Material Combination</td> <td style="text-align: center;" width="151">Friction coefficient in air</td> <td style="text-align: center;" width="183">Friction coefficient in vacuum</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Fe-Fe</td> <td>0.3</td> <td>1.9</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Fe-Mg</td> <td>1</td> <td>0.6</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Fe-Cd</td> <td>1.5</td> <td>0.4</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Fe-Pb</td> <td>0.9</td> <td>0.4</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Stainless Steel -Stainless Steel</td> <td>0.5</td> <td>2.9</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Stainless Steel - Cu</td> <td>-</td> <td>0.3</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Stainless Steel-Al</td> <td>0.4</td> <td>0.3</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Stainless Steel-Mo</td> <td>-</td> <td>0.8</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Stainless Steel-Ni</td> <td>-</td> <td>0.8</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Stainless Steel-Teflon</td> <td>-</td> <td>0.2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Stainless Steel-Si</td> <td>-</td> <td>0.2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Stainless Steel-Ge</td> <td>-</td> <td>0.2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Stainless Steel-Glass</td> <td>-</td> <td>0.5</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Chromium Steel - Chromium Steel</td> <td>0.5</td> <td>0.5</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Cu-Cu</td> <td>0.5-1.0</td> <td>4.8-21.0</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Cu-Ni</td> <td>0.6</td> <td>1.5-2.0</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Al-Al</td> <td>0.8</td> <td>1.6-2.2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Al-Ni</td> <td>-</td> <td>2.4</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Al-Cu</td> <td>-</td> <td>1.5</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Al-Ag</td> <td>-</td> <td>2.2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Brass-Brass</td> <td>0.4</td> <td>0.7</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ni-Ni</td> <td>-</td> <td>4.9</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ag-Ag</td> <td>-</td> <td>3.9</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Cr-Cr</td> <td>0.6</td> <td>3</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Au-Au</td> <td>0.6</td> <td>4.5</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Zn-Zn</td> <td>1</td> <td>3</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Zr-Zr</td> <td>-</td> <td>1.5</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Chromium Steel - MoS2 (vacuum deposition)</td> <td>-</td> <td>0.06</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Chromium Steel - MoS2 (friction deposition)</td> <td>-</td> <td>0.06</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Cu-MoS2</td> <td>0.2</td> <td>0.07</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Brass-Steel</td> <td>0.35</td> <td>-</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Tire - Asphalt</td> <td>0.72</td> <td>-</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Tire - Grass</td> <td>0.35</td> <td>-</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Diamond - Diamond</td> <td>0.1</td> <td>-</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Glass - Glass</td> <td>0.9-1.0</td> <td>-</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Graphite - Steel</td> <td>0.1</td> <td>-</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Graphite - Graphite</td> <td>0.1</td> <td>0.5-0.8</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ice - Ice</td> <td>0.02-0.09</td> <td>-</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Ice - Steel</td> <td>0.03</td> <td>-</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Wood - Wood</td> <td>&gt;0.2</td> <td>-</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Polytetrafluoroethylene - Polytetrafluoroethylene</td> <td>0.04</td> <td>-</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h2>Steel friction coefficient table</h2> <table id="tablepress-9" class="tablepress tablepress-id-9 dataTable no-footer" role="grid"> <thead> <tr class="row-1 odd" role="row"> <th class="column-1 sorting_disabled" colspan="1" rowspan="1">Materials</th> <th class="column-2 sorting_disabled" colspan="1" rowspan="1"></th> <th class="column-3 sorting_disabled" colspan="1" rowspan="1">Static friction coefficient</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody class="row-hover"> <tr class="row-2 even"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Aluminium Bros</td> <td class="column-3">0.45</td> </tr> <tr class="row-3 odd"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Brass</td> <td class="column-3">0.35</td> </tr> <tr class="row-4 even"> <td class="column-1">Steel(Mild)</td> <td class="column-2">Brass</td> <td class="column-3">0.51</td> </tr> <tr class="row-5 odd"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Cast Iron</td> <td class="column-3">0.4</td> </tr> <tr class="row-6 even"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Copper Lead Alloy</td> <td class="column-3">0.22</td> </tr> <tr class="row-7 odd"> <td class="column-1">Steel (Hard)</td> <td class="column-2">Graphite</td> <td class="column-3">0.21</td> </tr> <tr class="row-8 even"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Graphite</td> <td class="column-3">0.1</td> </tr> <tr class="row-9 odd"> <td class="column-1">Steel (Mild)</td> <td class="column-2">Lead</td> <td class="column-3">0.95</td> </tr> <tr class="row-10 even"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Phos Bros</td> <td class="column-3">0.35</td> </tr> <tr class="row-11 odd"> <td class="column-1">Steel(Hard)</td> <td class="column-2">Polythened</td> <td class="column-3">0.2</td> </tr> <tr class="row-12 even"> <td class="column-1">Steel(Hard)</td> <td class="column-2">Polystyrene</td> <td class="column-3">0.3-0.35</td> </tr> <tr class="row-13 odd"> <td class="column-1">Steel (Mild)</td> <td class="column-2">Steel (Mild)</td> <td class="column-3">0.74</td> </tr> <tr class="row-14 even"> <td class="column-1">Steel(Hard)</td> <td class="column-2">Steel (Hard)</td> <td class="column-3">0.78</td> </tr> <tr class="row-15 odd"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Zinc (Plated on steel)</td> <td class="column-3">0.5</td> </tr> <tr class="row-16 even"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Tungsten Carbide</td> <td class="column-3">0.4 - 0.6</td> </tr> <tr class="row-17 odd"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Teflon</td> <td class="column-3">0.04</td> </tr> <tr class="row-18 even"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Polythene</td> <td class="column-3">0.2</td> </tr> <tr class="row-19 odd"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Polystyrene</td> <td class="column-3">0.3-0.35</td> </tr> <tr class="row-20 even"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Plexiglas</td> <td class="column-3">0.4 - 0.5</td> </tr> <tr class="row-21 odd"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Hard Carbon</td> <td class="column-3">0.14</td> </tr> <tr class="row-22 even"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Graphite</td> <td class="column-3">0.1</td> </tr> <tr class="row-23 odd"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Copper-Lead Alloy</td> <td class="column-3">0.22</td> </tr> <tr class="row-24 even"> <td class="column-1">Steel (Mild)</td> <td class="column-2">Copper</td> <td class="column-3">0.53</td> </tr> <tr class="row-25 odd"> <td class="column-1">Steel (Mild)</td> <td class="column-2">Aluminum</td> <td class="column-3">0.61</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h2>Friction Coefficient of Wood, Leather, and Stone</h2> <table id="tablepress-11" class="tablepress tablepress-id-11 dataTable no-footer" role="grid" aria-describedby="tablepress-11_info"> <thead> <tr class="row-1 odd" role="row"> <th class="column-1 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-11" aria-label="Material Pair: activate to sort column ascending">Material Pair</th> <th class="column-2 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-11" aria-label="Static COF: activate to sort column ascending">Static COF</th> <th class="column-3 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-11" aria-label="Dynamic COF: activate to sort column ascending">Dynamic COF</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody class="row-hover"> <tr class="row-2 even"> <td class="column-1">Hardwood on hardwood</td> <td class="column-2">—</td> <td class="column-3">0.129</td> </tr> <tr class="row-3 odd"> <td class="column-1">Oak on oak, parallel to the grain</td> <td class="column-2">0.62</td> <td class="column-3">0.48</td> </tr> <tr class="row-4 even"> <td class="column-1">Oak on oak, perpendicular to the grain</td> <td class="column-2">0.54</td> <td class="column-3">0.32</td> </tr> <tr class="row-5 odd"> <td class="column-1">Cast iron on oak</td> <td class="column-2">—</td> <td class="column-3">0.49</td> </tr> <tr class="row-6 even"> <td class="column-1">Brick on wood</td> <td class="column-2">0.6</td> <td class="column-3">—</td> </tr> <tr class="row-7 odd"> <td class="column-1">Clean wood on metals</td> <td class="column-2">0.2–0.6</td> <td class="column-3">—</td> </tr> <tr class="row-8 even"> <td class="column-1">Leather on iron</td> <td class="column-2">—</td> <td class="column-3">0.25</td> </tr> <tr class="row-9 odd"> <td class="column-1">Leather on oak, parallel to the grain</td> <td class="column-2">0.61</td> <td class="column-3">0.52</td> </tr> <tr class="row-10 even"> <td class="column-1">Leather on cast iron</td> <td class="column-2">—</td> <td class="column-3">0.56</td> </tr> <tr class="row-11 odd"> <td class="column-1">Leather on metal</td> <td class="column-2">0.6</td> <td class="column-3">—</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h2>Sliding Friction Coefficient Table for Selected Ceramic Materials (Room Temperature in Air)</h2> <table id="tablepress-12" class="tablepress tablepress-id-12 dataTable no-footer" role="grid" aria-describedby="tablepress-12_info"> <thead> <tr class="row-1 odd" role="row"> <th class="column-1 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-12" aria-label="Ceramic: activate to sort column ascending">Ceramic</th> <th class="column-2 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-12" aria-label="Counterface: activate to sort column ascending">Counterface</th> <th class="column-3 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-12" aria-label="μ: activate to sort column ascending">μ</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody class="row-hover"> <tr class="row-2 even"> <td class="column-1">Al2O3</td> <td class="column-2">Al2O3</td> <td class="column-3">0.33–0.50</td> </tr> <tr class="row-3 odd"> <td class="column-1">Al2O3</td> <td class="column-2">Al2O3</td> <td class="column-3">0.20–0.9</td> </tr> <tr class="row-4 even"> <td class="column-1">α-Al2O3</td> <td class="column-2">α-Al2O3</td> <td class="column-3">0.38–0.42</td> </tr> <tr class="row-5 odd"> <td class="column-1">Al2O3</td> <td class="column-2">Al2O3–SiC composite</td> <td class="column-3">0.53</td> </tr> <tr class="row-6 even"> <td class="column-1">Al2O3–SiC composite</td> <td class="column-2">Al2O3–SiC composite</td> <td class="column-3">0.64–0.84</td> </tr> <tr class="row-7 odd"> <td class="column-1">B4C</td> <td class="column-2">B4C</td> <td class="column-3">0.53</td> </tr> <tr class="row-8 even"> <td class="column-1">SiC</td> <td class="column-2">SiC</td> <td class="column-3">0.52</td> </tr> <tr class="row-9 odd"> <td class="column-1">SiC</td> <td class="column-2">Si3N4</td> <td class="column-3">0.53–0.71</td> </tr> <tr class="row-10 even"> <td class="column-1">WC</td> <td class="column-2">WC</td> <td class="column-3">0.34</td> </tr> <tr class="row-11 odd"> <td class="column-1">Si3N4</td> <td class="column-2">Si3N4</td> <td class="column-3">0.42–0.82</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h2>Ice friction coefficient</h2> Depending on pressure, temperature, and the conditions of formation, ice can take on any of at least eight allotropic forms, the largest number for any known substance. These changes impact the <a href="https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.3340792">ice friction</a> coefficient behavior, as shown in the figure below. [caption id="attachment_26890" align="aligncenter" width="790"]<img class="size-full wp-image-26890" src="http://www.tribonet.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Ice-Friction.jpg" alt="ice friction coefficient" width="790" height="631" /> Friction coefficient for stainless steel and ice on polycrystalline ice as a function<br />of temperature, [3].[/caption] <table id="tablepress-13" class="tablepress tablepress-id-13 dataTable no-footer" role="grid" aria-describedby="tablepress-13_info"> <thead> <tr class="row-1 odd" role="row"> <th class="column-1 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-13" aria-label="Material: activate to sort column ascending">Material</th> <th class="column-2 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-13" aria-label="μs (0°C): activate to sort column ascending">μs (0°C)</th> <th class="column-3 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-13" aria-label="μs (-5°C) : activate to sort column ascending">μs (-5°C)</th> <th class="column-4 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-13" aria-label="μs (-10°C) : activate to sort column ascending">μs (-10°C)</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody class="row-hover"> <tr class="row-2 even"> <td class="column-1">Ski lacquer (pigmented nitrocellulose plasticized with phthalate)</td> <td class="column-2">0.05</td> <td class="column-3">0.11</td> <td class="column-4">0.43</td> </tr> <tr class="row-3 odd"> <td class="column-1">Paraffi n wax</td> <td class="column-2">0.04</td> <td class="column-3">0.27</td> <td class="column-4">0.37</td> </tr> <tr class="row-4 even"> <td class="column-1">Norwegian wax (sulfur-free, bituminous wax)</td> <td class="column-2">0.045</td> <td class="column-3">0.1</td> <td class="column-4">0.2</td> </tr> <tr class="row-5 odd"> <td class="column-1">Swiss wax (highly refi ned, bituminous, hydrocarbon wax with 1.5% Al powder)</td> <td class="column-2">0.05</td> <td class="column-3">0.1</td> <td class="column-4">0.2</td> </tr> <tr class="row-6 even"> <td class="column-1">Polytetrafl uoroethylene (PTFE)</td> <td class="column-2">0.04</td> <td class="column-3">0.05</td> <td class="column-4">0.55</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h2>Friction coefficient table for materials in fretting regime</h2> In <a href="http://www.tribonet.org/wiki/fretting/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">fretting</a>, friction coefficients are different for the same pairs of materials due to changes in friction mechanisms. These tables include some data for commonly used materials. <table id="tablepress-7" class="tablepress tablepress-id-7 dataTable no-footer" role="grid"> <thead> <tr class="row-1 odd" role="row"> <th class="column-1 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-7" aria-label="Ball Material: activate to sort column ascending">Ball Material</th> <th class="column-2 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-7" aria-label="Flat Material: activate to sort column ascending">Flat Material</th> <th class="column-3 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-7" aria-label="μinitial: activate to sort column ascending">μinitial</th> <th class="column-4 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-7" aria-label="μsteady-state: activate to sort column ascending">μsteady-state</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody class="row-hover"> <tr class="row-2 even"> <td class="column-1">Cu</td> <td class="column-2">Cu</td> <td class="column-3">1.2</td> <td class="column-4">0.6</td> </tr> <tr class="row-3 odd"> <td class="column-1">Cu</td> <td class="column-2">Glass</td> <td class="column-3">1.2</td> <td class="column-4">0.65</td> </tr> <tr class="row-4 even"> <td class="column-1">Fe</td> <td class="column-2">Fe</td> <td class="column-3">0.7</td> <td class="column-4">0.65</td> </tr> <tr class="row-5 odd"> <td class="column-1">Fe</td> <td class="column-2">Glass</td> <td class="column-3">0.8</td> <td class="column-4">0.85</td> </tr> <tr class="row-6 even"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Steel</td> <td class="column-3">0.6</td> <td class="column-4">0.55</td> </tr> <tr class="row-7 odd"> <td class="column-1">Steel</td> <td class="column-2">Glass</td> <td class="column-3">1.3</td> <td class="column-4">0.62</td> </tr> <tr class="row-8 even"> <td class="column-1">CuO</td> <td class="column-2">CuO</td> <td class="column-3">0.7</td> <td class="column-4">0.65</td> </tr> <tr class="row-9 odd"> <td class="column-1">Cu2O</td> <td class="column-2">Cu2O</td> <td class="column-3">0.65</td> <td class="column-4">0.62</td> </tr> <tr class="row-10 even"> <td class="column-1">Fe2O3</td> <td class="column-2">Fe2O3</td> <td class="column-3">0.62</td> <td class="column-4">0.6</td> </tr> <tr class="row-11 odd"> <td class="column-1">Fe3O4</td> <td class="column-2">Fe3O4</td> <td class="column-3">0.3</td> <td class="column-4">No</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h2>Friction coefficient table in fretting regime as a function of humidity</h2> <table id="tablepress-8" class="tablepress tablepress-id-8 dataTable no-footer" role="grid"> <thead> <tr class="row-1 odd" role="row"> <th class="column-1 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-8" aria-label="Metal: activate to sort column ascending">Metal</th> <th class="column-2 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-8" aria-label="&amp;nbsp;: activate to sort column ascending"></th> <th class="column-3 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-8" aria-label="μsteady-state: activate to sort column ascending">μ steady-state</th> <th class="column-4 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-8" aria-label="&amp;nbsp;: activate to sort column ascending"></th> <th class="column-5 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-8" aria-label="&amp;nbsp;: activate to sort column ascending"></th> <th class="column-6 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-8" aria-label="&amp;nbsp;: activate to sort column ascending"></th> <th class="column-7 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-8" aria-label="&amp;nbsp;: activate to sort column ascending"></th> <th class="column-8 sorting" tabindex="0" colspan="1" rowspan="1" aria-controls="tablepress-8" aria-label="&amp;nbsp;: activate to sort column ascending"></th> </tr> </thead> <tbody class="row-hover"> <tr class="row-2 even"> <td class="column-1"></td> <td class="column-2">0–2% RH</td> <td class="column-3">10–12% RH</td> <td class="column-4">49–50% RH</td> <td class="column-5"></td> <td class="column-6"></td> <td class="column-7"></td> <td class="column-8"></td> </tr> <tr class="row-3 odd"> <td class="column-1">Fe</td> <td class="column-2">0.45</td> <td class="column-3">0.4</td> <td class="column-4">0.25</td> <td class="column-5"></td> <td class="column-6"></td> <td class="column-7"></td> <td class="column-8"></td> </tr> <tr class="row-4 even"> <td class="column-1">Ni</td> <td class="column-2">0.42</td> <td class="column-3">—</td> <td class="column-4">0.19</td> <td class="column-5"></td> <td class="column-6"></td> <td class="column-7"></td> <td class="column-8"></td> </tr> <tr class="row-5 odd"> <td class="column-1">Ti</td> <td class="column-2">0.35</td> <td class="column-3">0.4</td> <td class="column-4">0.28</td> <td class="column-5"></td> <td class="column-6"></td> <td class="column-7"></td> <td class="column-8"></td> </tr> <tr class="row-6 even"> <td class="column-1">Cr</td> <td class="column-2">0.25</td> <td class="column-3">—</td> <td class="column-4">0.22</td> </tr> </tbody> </table>
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